Продолжая тему: http://www.dipcomment.com/expert.php?watch=132.
....Corporatism (which should be distinguished from the tripartite bargaining structures that emerged in many countries in the 1970’s under the name “neo-corporatism”) became the most influential ethically motivated intervention into economics in modern history. As Catholic social doctrine until the late twentieth century, Corporatism still shapes constitutions, laws, and attitudes throughout the world. It can be distilled into four tenets:
· Equality is a cruel illusion: people are happiest if rightly placed in a hierarchy legitimized by Catholic teachings.
· Competition is spiritually demeaning. Associations – committees of Catholic business owners, labor leaders, and officials – must set quotas, prices, and wages within vertically connected swaths of the economy called corporations. A typical Corporatist economy might contain thirty or so corporations – foods, heavy industry, textiles, chemicals, etc. – each encompassing raw materials, production, distribution, and retailing firms. International trade and new firms are undesirable, because they undermine associations’ power.
· Private property is legitimatized by owners’ obedience to Church and association, but delegitimized by competition.
· The principle of subsidiarity devolves authority unneeded at higher levels to the lowest feasible level throughout the hierarchy.
Mussolini established the first Corporatist economy, albeit substituting “Fascist” for “Catholic” throughout. State holding companies controlled key listed firms directly; and associations controlled the rest, reconciling totalitarianism with nominally private ownership.