Азиатские тигры (igor_tiger) wrote,
Азиатские тигры
igor_tiger

Корея: восемь провокаций на одном полуострове

Стрельба возле о-ва Енпхёндо
стала уже восьмой провокацией за последние 10 лет.


Ноябрь 2001г.
On Nov. 27, 2001, North Korean soldiers opened fire across the
demilitarized border zone at a South Korean guardpost. South Korean soldiers
responded with fire, though none were killed from either side. Another exchange
of fire would not be recorded until July 23, 2003.

Despite the Nov. 27 incident, two days later the United States reaffirmed it would provide
humanitarian assistance to North
Korea
and desired to resume talks.

And even after President George W. Bush in January 2002 characterized
North Korea, along with Iraq and Iran, as part of the so-called “axis of evil,”
Secretary of State Colin Powell reiterated that Washington was willing to
resume dialogue with the North at "any time, any place, or anywhere
without any preconditions."


Июнь 2002г.
On June 29, 2002, two North Korean patrol ships crossed into the South
Korean-controlled area of the Yellow Sea and
opened fire on a South Korean patrol ship, sinking it and killing four
civilians. Happening during the final matches of the 2002 World Cup, which was
jointly hosted by Seoul and Tokyo, the incident dashed hopes that the
soccer tournament might warm relations between neighbors.

The skirmish occurred just after Washington
had signaled it was ready to visit Pyongyang and resume peace talks, leading some analysts to speculate the incident was a
North Korean delay tactic, the Monitor then reported.

As with the most recent exchange of fire, both the North and South
blamed the other for initiating the attack. The South demanded an apology,
which a North Korean Navy spokesman called "the height of impudence.'' CNN
estimated then that some 30 North Korean sailors were killed or injured in
retaliatory fire.

"The military provocation of preemptive firing by a North Korean
Navy patrol ship is a clear violation of the armistice and an act that raises
tension on the Korean peninsula. We cannot keep silent," said South Korean
President Kim Dae-jun, echoing remarks that would be repeated by other leaders
after skirmishes with the reclusive North.


Февраль 2003г.
A series of North Korean moves in late February and early March of 2003
appeared to send a signal to the incoming South Korean president and test US
resolve in the region.

On Feb. 24, 2003, North Korea
fired a single missile into the sea between South
Korea
and Japan,
a day before South Korea
swore in President Roh Moo-hyun. "The move seemed carefully calibrated to
draw attention without being highly provocative – a flashing signal rather than
a red light," The New York Times then reported. "In its last missile
test, in 1998, North Korea launched a missile that flew over Japanese territory, setting off a crisis
between the countries."

A week later, on March 2, four North Korean jets intercepted an unarmed US reconnaissance plane in international
airspace over the Sea of Japan. The jets
shadowed the plane for 22 minutes. On March 10, North
Korea
fired a second missile into the sea between South Korea and Japan in as many weeks.


Июль 2006г.
On July 4, 2006, Kim Jong-il test launched seven missiles, including the
118-ft.-long Taepodong-2 missile potentially capable of carrying a nuclear
warhead. North Korean officials called it part of "regular military drills
to strengthen self-defense."

The missiles mostly landed in Russian waters. Japan suspended contacts
with the North and called for an emergency UN Security Council meeting,
although Russia and China resisted calls for sanctions on North Korea.

The missile test – as with the Nov. 23, 2010, incident – was thought to
be an attempt by Kim Jong-il to increase his bargaining power at approaching
six-party talks on North
Korea
's nuclear program. "Kim wants
more cards to play in the six-party talks. But I think he has now
miscalculated," Jia Qingguo, associate dean of the international studies
department at Beijing
University
, told the
Monitor then. "Kim may think he is getting more cards. But I think this
will only make the voice of the hard-liners in the US and Japan stronger."

As then-Beijing bureau chief Robert Marquand wrote: "Kim, like his
father, runs his poor and isolated country on a complex principle of
"self-reliance" called Juche, which has turned North Korea
into something of a cult of personality. Kim can't afford to open his society
as that could force changes that could undermine Juche. Yet North Korea is in a part of Asia that is modernizing rapidly – causing unknown strains on the North's
system."

The same is being speculated of the most recent provocation, with Kim's
son – and heir apparent – now seeking to project his own image.


Март 2008г.
On March 23, 2008, North
Korea
test-launched a barrage of short-range
missiles. "That move was prompted by the North's anger over South Korean
statements that any expansion of the [joint industrial zone] project in the
border city of Kaesong would only happen if the North resolved the
international standoff over its nuclear weapons," the Associated Press
reported.

The test fire was also seen as a response to the South Korean
government's firm stance on relations with Pyongyang, with the South's newly instated
conservative president, Lee Myung-bak, ending a decade of "Sunshine
policy" engagement with the North.


Март 2010г.
On March 26, 2010, a
North Korean submarine in the Yellow Sea fired
a torpedo at the South Korean naval corvette Cheonan, according to the
subsequent findings of an international investigation. The ship sank and 46
sailors died.

"The evidence points overwhelmingly to the conclusion that the
torpedo was fired by a North Korean submarine,” a report concluded. “There is
no other plausible explanation.”

South Korean President Lee Myung-bak initially promised “resolute
countermeasures” to make North Korea
“admit its wrongdoings,” but the North has continued to deny responsibility,
even offering to send its own investigators to South Korea to examine the
evidence.

The United States
subsequently held a series of naval exercises with South
Korea
, despite protests from China, which did not acknowledge
the North’s responsibility in the attack on the Cheonan. The exercise was aimed
at showing muscle to North
Korea
, the Monitor reported.


Октябрь 2010г.
On Oct. 29, 2010, North Korean troops fired precisely two shots near a
South Korean guard post along the border, prompting the South to fire three
shots in return. It was believed to be the first exchange of fire on land since
2006, the Guardian reported.

The skirmish came six months after the sinking of the South Korean naval
corvette Cheonan, for which the South said it was cutting off diplomatic ties
with the North until Pyongyang
issued an apology. But instead of offering any such reconciliation, the North
warned on Oct. 29 – coinciding with the exchange of military fire – that
bilateral relations would face a "catastrophic impact" if the South
continued to reject talks, reported Agence France-Presse.


Источник: http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Asia-Pacific/2010/1123/North-Korean-attack-on-South-Korea-8-provocations-of-the-past-decade/November-2001

В 2009г. провокаций не было.
Но КНДР в марте 2009г. провела ядерные
испытания, которые сплотили Совбез ООН вокруг «новых санкций» и дали новый виток
милитаристской риторики.
Tags: Корея
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